Key Concept Map
Subject-Based Process Model
Content is selected to exemplify the key concepts, criteria and procedures which best represent the structure of a body of knowledge. It is assumed that within knowledge there are number of distinct types of rational judgement. For example: 'a moral judgement is not validated in the same way as a mathematical theorem, nor a historical explanation in the same way as a theological proposition'. Hirst (1975) has suggested that all knowledge and understanding is located in a number of domains and has proposed mathematics, physical sciences, knowledge of persons, literature, the fine arts, religion and philosophy as all having distinctive 'ways of thinking'.
Learning Outcomes (Ends)
Specifying key concepts, criteria and procedures as learning outcomes would distort the curriculum. This is because they are problematic within a subject. They should therefore become the focus of speculation not the object of mastery. The purpose of the curriculum is to help the learner to think like and see the world as does a historian, a mathematician, an industrial designer etc; etc. ' In studying a body of socially prescribed knowledge the student is concerned with the 'predatory pursuit of truth'. The curriculum is never deliberately vocational and the 'truth' may not be of any practical use at all.
Learning Activities (Means to Ends)
It is up to the teacher to devise learning activities for the students, but these should be worthwhile processes in themselves rather than means towards specific learning objectives. These activities will have a wide range of worthwhile cognitive content (unlike games) and they should be designed to illuminate the kinds of rational thinking and judgement that are peculiar to a particular body of knowledge or discipline.
The subject based process model of curriculum cannot be directed towards an examination without loss of quality. In assessment of the students' work the teacher is an appraiser or critic not a marker. Assessment is about the teaching of self assessment.
There is implicit acceptance of the Stenhouse model in the design of many humanities courses, although most would not accept the abolition of formal examinations in their patterns of assessment.
Hirst, P (1975) The nature and structure of curriculum objectives. In Curriculum Design (1975) edited by Golby, M et al Open University Books
Stenhouse, L (1975): An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development. Heinemann Educational Books